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Certificate for Building & Construction

Institutional Affiliation

Q 1 Critical Areas for Quality Control
The system is recognized and appraised by the construction board of New Zealand and conforms to the construction and building regulations and guidelines. As a result, all the construction has to incorporate all these standards put forward by the building authority. However, critical attention has to get accorded to some particular aspects outlined as follows. The building under construction should gain an appraisal if it meets the requirements of clause B1 that needs the structure to self-support in the case of earthquakes and tremors and general impact emanating from self-carriage. External moisture, durability and use of non-hazardous construction materials and equipment additional need a serious evaluation. Buildings or structures that conform to the above quality tests receives approval while the ones that meet not the minimum assessment procedure receive condemnation (Yunos & Harith, 2015).

As far as technical specifications are concerned, the clay bricks had to be kiln-fired and made to some specified length, texture, and height. Clay bricks that lack the traits as mentioned earlier qualify not into the system, and therefore they form the basis for classification and qualification of the structures built. Moreover, there is a specified manner in which the bricks get packaged for delivery and avoidance of physical temperance (Chappell & Dunn, 2015).

The foundation of the structure must consist of a slab and a concrete one. Furthermore, whenever a structure is to be erected on unstable grounds, supporting, controlling joints are a pre-requisite for the stability of the structure. Hence, proper advice should be sought from experts on the balance and stability of the field before the foundation gets erected. As such, it could be easier to recommend and approve construction.

The other critical areas could include framing, veneer height, treatment of timber and wall bracing necessities among others. Because, if the requirements are met, the durability, ease of maintenance can be guaranteed throughout the life of the building and hence the criticality of the regulations. Moreover, the rules ensure that quality gets delivered to perfection (Morrison, Henderson & Kopp, 2012).
Q 2 Inspection Checklist
Framing Checklist

Item Remark
Are all the framing timber, kiln-dried
Floor joists installed by manufacturer specification
Specified truss is available at the location
Truss assembly is in agreement with the design
Are hangers fitted as to the stipulations?
Are the roofing materials the same as in the original plan and design?
Does the roofing conform to the original design?

Internal Fixing Checklist
The stage obtains primary characterization from the fixing of all necessary apparatus within the house such as bathrooms, doors, cupboards, basins, and skirting boards among others.

Item Remark
Are all skirting boards, basins, doors and inbuilt shelves installed in line with construction plans?
How is the plumbing? Is it weak, level, average or excellent?
Have the waterproof membranes installed to standards? Does water leak from the membranes? If yes, please elaborate the kind of damage the water has caused.
Cupboards and bench tops at all times should be fixed and fitted in position. Does the fixing comply with the Building Code of Australia?

Q 3 Inspection Results
The results of the inspection are measured and documented in an inspection report by the owner and presented to the builder for approval. After completion of construction works, the client or tradesman can approach an expert to carry out an inspection of the structure. The inspection is done to ascertain that the building does not contain construction defects, constructed with non-hazardous materials, does not contain cracks, and sometimes poorly done a roof. Chappell & Dunn (2015), the inspector shall then prepare a standard report upon completing his inspection. Why is it necessary to conduct an investigation? The review aids in identifying defects earlier and to be able to negotiate for better prices in case of repurchase or resale.

Another important aspect to always remember should be that not everybody can perform a property inspection. A proper examination should be entrusted to a professional most probably an architect or surveyor (Dalton et al., 2013). The report contains exterior information roof surface, spacing, interior and exterior of the structure. Surface drainage, driveways and paths, garage, fencing and water availability are among the other factors considered during conduction of a building inspection.
Q 4 Preparation of Final Account Document
A final account refers to the final agreed figure disbursed to the contractor at the end of the construction contract. However, proper preparation of the statement should involve quantity surveyors from both the contractor and client’s side (Morrison, Henderson & Kopp, 2012). The contractor provides the quantity surveyor with the requisite documents six months after completion of work. Then the engineer determines and prepares a sum of the account for sending back to the contractor within the period of three months.

According to Lim (2016) and Dalton et al. (2013), the work measured as detailed in the final account receive determination of the original billing cost. However, in case the contractor contests the accuracy of the figures, then he can request the surveyor to measure the work performed on the site. Appropriate adjustments are made and then the client and contractor sign against the final figure prepared by the engineer or architect. The contractor is required to provide relevant supplier and subcontractors’ accounts, for first and timely processing of the final account report for presentation to the client for payment.

Before undertaking the handover, the contractor or designer should explain the operation mode of the buildings and structures for deciphering maximum benefit. After making sufficient the explanation, the client obtains a Certificate of Substantial Completion. Along with the license, the designing team also issues copies of contracting documents. Lastly, they have also to give out a well-completed safety file to the client and contractor as well (Yunos, & Harith, 2015).
Q 5 Handover Process
The process begins with the design team outlining and explaining the maximum benefits solicited from the structures completed. Together with the benefits, the team also defines the manner of operating and manning the facilities. The primary point of emphasis should be the efficiency and effectiveness with which the systems consume and conserve energy. Moreover, safety when using the services has to be guaranteed to the employer and occupant before issuance of the Substantial Completion certificate (Hopkin et al., 2014).

Then follows elaborate tests to ascertain and authenticate the safety and guarantee provided by the designing team. Subsequently, latest sets of construction drawings get provided by the project supervisor to the employer for certification. More importantly, the surveyor or architect issues a statement of opinion regarding compliance of the works with the set criteria and guidelines by the construction act. Then lastly, the handover occurs with the issuance of a Certificate of Substantial Compliance (Yunos, & Harith, 2015).
Q 6 Practical Completion
The phrase implies to the situation where a house under construction is fit for occupation, and all work is completed in regards to the contract. Omissions and defects that inhibit not occupation are never included in the contract when defining practical completion. However, the items should hinder not trade or use of the building for the intended purpose. Otherwise, it could infer that actual end has occurred not. It is through practical completion inspection that the items are evaluated, observed and a report prepared for the purpose of making handover and payment (Yunos & Harith, 2015).
Q 7 Defects Liability Period Process
According to Lim (2016), liability period refers to the duration within which the contractor is allowed to correct any construction anomalies after practical completion has taken place. It offers a significant advantage for the owners since they do not require to incur additional costs to remedy the defects identified. The errors do not usually prevent the occupant from putting to use the building as intended since they are not included in the Substantial Completion Certificate. Therefore, after appraisals have been made, the contractor receives the certificate and then later comes to complete and rectify the defects. Duration is limited to twelve months after completion. The contractor benefits from remedying the shortcomings as he shall not have to sub-contract to an external contractor (Hopkin et al., 2014).

Additionally, when the final statement gets prepared, all defects got detailed and presented to the contractor for correction before the expiry of the remedy period. Even if the period expires, it can be extended until the satisfactory conviction of perfect correction of the defect gains verification. After which upon successful remedying of the flaws, a defects certificate is presented to the client and the contractor as well (Chappell & Dunn, 2015).


Chappell, D. & Dunn, M. (2015). The architect in practice. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Dalton, T. R., Hurley, J. R., Gharaie, E. R., Wakefield, R. R., & Horne, R. R. (2013). “Australian suburban house building: Industry organisation.” Housing, Theory and Society, 16(3), 106-21.

Hopkin, T., Lu, S., Rogers, P. & Sexton, M. (2014). “Placing defects at the heart of high
quality new homes: the learning perspective.” 30th ARCOM Conference (pp. 1-3).

Lim, P. (2016). “Defects in Construction Works.” In Lim, P. Contract Administration and
Procurement in the Singapore Construction Industry. Singapore: NUS. (pp. 219-241).

Morrison, M. J., Henderson, D. J. & Kopp, G. A. (2012). “The response of a wood-frame, gable roof to fluctuating wind loads.” Engineering Structures, 41, 498-509.

Yunos, M. & Harith, M. (2015). The prevailing practice in deciding the practical completion of construction work (Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Built Environment).

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